A male client has experienced low back pain for several years. He is the primary support of his wife and six children. Although he would qualify for disability, he plans to continue his employment as long as possible. His back pain has increased recently, and he is unable to control it with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. He refuses surgery and cannot take narcotics and remain alert enough to concentrate at work. His physician has suggested application of a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) unit. Which of the following is an appropriate rationale for using a TENS unit for relief of pain?
TENS units have an ultrasonic effect that relaxes muscles, decreases joint stiffness, and increases range of motion.
TENS units produce endogenous opioids that affect the central nervous system with analgesic potency comparable to morphine.
TENS units work on the gate-control theory of pain; biostimulation therapy of large fibers block painful stimuli.
TENS units prevent muscle spasms, decrease the potential for further injury, and minimize pressure on joints.
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